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Notas De Estudo, Pedagogia
Minimum Wages and ILO
The ILO attached much importance to the question of fixing minimum wages as far back as 1921, and the result of its enquiry led to the adoption of a Convention No.20 and a Recommendation No.30 on minimum wage fixing machinery 1928, covering only non-agriculture sector of employments. After 23 years, that is 1951, the ILO Conference at its 34th Session adopted a Minimum Wage Fixing Convention No.99 and a Recommendation No.83 for agricultural employments. Since then a number of conventions and recommendations have been adopted having important bearings on the question of minimum wages.
Fixation of Minimum Wages in India
India has ratified the ILO convention on Minimum Wage Fixing Machinery and has enacted a central minimum wage legislation, known as Minimum Wages Act, 1948. As in other countries, here also the need for fixing minimum wages arose from the conditions created by the payment of low and sweated wages in the unorganised and organised sectors of industries, and consequent need for protecting workers against exploitation. The Indian Labour Conference at its 5th session approved, in principle, the enactment of minimum wage legislation. A draft Bill was prepared and considered at its 6th and 7th sessions, and at a special sub-committee meeting in 1946. The Bill was introduced in the Central Assembly and it became an Act in March 1948.
Minimum wages : Wages sufficient to satisfy atleast the minimum needs Fair wages : Wages based on productivity of labour, including bare necessities more than minimum wages Living wage :Wages plus incentives to work and produce enough in quantity without sacrificing quality.
DEFINITION 2 (h) "wages"
means all remuneration capable of being expressed in terms of money which would if the terms of the contract of employment express or implied were fu
any contribution paid by the employer to any person fund or under any scheme of social insurance; any traveling allowance or the value of any traveling
any sum paid to the person employed to defray special expenses entailed on him by the nature of his employment; or any gratuity payable on discharge;
Appropriate Government: (Sec. 2 (b)).
The appropriate government in relation to any scheduled employment carried on by or under the authority of the Central Government, or a railway administration, or in relation to a mine, oilfield, or major port, or any corporation established by a Central Act means the Central Government (Sec. 2 (b) (ii)). In relation to any other Scheduled employment, the appropriate government means the State Government. (Sec. 2(b) (ii)).
Procedure for fixing and revising Minimum Wage
Under Section 5 of Minimum Wages Act, 1948 there are basically two method of fixation/revision of Minimum Wages Two Methods First - Committee Method
Second - Notification Method
Minimum Wage rate fixed in India
The Minimum Wage rate may be fixed at: a) time rate, b) piece rate, c) guaranteed time rate and d) overtime rate. The Act provides that different Minimum Wage rate may be fixed for: a) different scheduled employments, b) different works in the same employment, c) adult, adolescent and children, d) different locations or e) male and female. Also, Government may fix such Minimum Wage by : a) an hour, b) day, c) month, or d) any other period as may be prescribed by the notified authority.
Section 3 empowers appropriate Government to fix the minimum r